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Black Pepper – The King of spices

Black pepper is native to South Asia and Southeast Asia, and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. Black  pepper (Piper nigrum)  and  long  pepper  (Piper  longum)  are  the  best known  species  in  this  family  and  are  probably  among  the most recognized spices in the world.  Black pepper alone  accounts  for  about  35%  of  the  world’s  total  spice  trade.  In addition, black pepper and long pepper have been  used  medicinally  for  centuries  In  recent  years.

The most commonly used part of the plant is the aromatic fruit. Interestingly, white, green, and black peppers are products of the P. nigrum fruits at different ripening stages. White pepper is obtained from the fully ripened fruits after removing the outer skin, green pep…………….read more

Vitamin and Mineral content

Vitamin : B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, K, Choline

Mineral : Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Sodium, Potassium

One tablespoon (6 grams) of ground black pepper contains moderate amounts of vitamin K (13% of the daily value or DV), iron (10% DV), and manganese (18% DV), with trace amounts of other essential nutrients, protein, and dietary fibre.

The major components of the essential oils were α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, δ-3-carene, limonene, and β-caryophyllene. 

         – More than a hundred compounds have been reported in black pepper oil. The oil is dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (47–64%) followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (30–47%)

In plants, thesecompounds are mostly second…………….read more

Properties and Benefits

Rasa (Taste) – Katu (Pungent)

Guna (qualities) – Laghu (lightness), Teekshna (strong, piercing), Sookshma – enters deep and minute body channels

Taste conversation after digestion – Katu(pungent) 

Veerya- Ushna – Hot potency

Effect on Tridosha – Balances Kapha and Vata

Na Ati Ushna – It is not very hot

Avrushya – It is anaphrodisiac

Ruchikaraka, Ruchya, Rochana – improves taste, relieves anorexia

Beca…………….read more

Uses Benefits Application and Remedies

  1. Fine powder of pepper is taken(1-2 gram), along with honey or betel leaf juice, which is used in chest congestion due to phlegm.


2) Black peppercorns and other whole herbs such as cinnamon chips, cloves and cracked cardamom pods are fried in ghee and used to flavor basmati rice. 



3) It can be added to fruit juices which helps to nullify Kapha dominant effect of sweet fruits.

4) Hair loss caused due scalp ringworm can be treated by applying black pepper, along with onion and salt. This can be also applied in headache.


5) Pepper decoction is used to gargle in case of tooth pain.

6) Ghee + Trikatu (Ginger, black pepper, long pepper)+ rock salt, black salt and bida salt  – Useful in vomiting due to Vata Dosha increase. 


7) In dysentery, fine black pepper is given with asafoetida and opium.


8) In cough, pepper powder is given with honey and ghee.



8) In chronic cold, pepper is used with jaggery and curd.

9) It can Sprinkle over soups and salads.

10) In Ayurveda, black pepper, long  pepper  and  ginger  are  often  used  together  in  equal  proportions  in  a preparation known as “trikatu”, a Sanskrit word meaning “three acrids”.


11) Black pepper currently finds multiple uses in flavorings, in perfumes, and in insecticide formula…………….read more

Side effects

Due to the hotness pepper, it increases Pitta. Hence, it needs to be used carefully in people with gastritis, burning sensation and sensitive stomach.

Because of its anaphrodisiac effect, it needs be used in less quantities or its long term usage is best avoided in men with infertility problems.

Pitta dom…………….read more


Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from piperine derived from both the outer fruit and the seed. Black pepper contains between 4.6 and 9.7% piperine by mass, and white pepper slightly more than that.  

Refined piperine, by weight, is about one percent as hot as the ca…………….read more

Note :

Evaporation, so airtight storage helps preserve its spiciness longer. Pepper can also lose flavour when exposed to light, which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. Most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use.

Scents are mostly missing in white pepper, as the fermentation and other processing removes the fruit la…………….read more

Different varieties of Maricha :

Black Pepper: Black pepper is produced from the green unripe drupe (unripe fruit) of the pepper plant. The unripe fruits are cooked in water for a few hours, Sun-dried or machine-dried for many days, during which pepper gains black wri…………….read more

Further read on following link



  1. Charaka Samhita

  2. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2014 Jun; 27(6): 847–854.   PMCID: PMC4093167

  3. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015 Apr 3; 66(3): 260–265.  Published online 2015 Jan 13. PMCID: PMC4487614

  4. Curr Top Med Chem. 2015; 15(9): 886–893.  PMCID: PMC6295909

  5. Bhojana Kutuhala

  6. Spices board of india.

  7. Molecules. 2019 Dec; 24(23): 4244. Published online 2019 Nov 21.   PMCID: PMC6930617

  8. Scholars Research Library. Central European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2014, 3 (2):36-41

  9. The Medicinal Uses of Pepper. International Pepper News.  Vol XXV, No. 1 Jan-Mar 2000. 23-31

  10. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 4270; doi:10.3390/app9204270

  11. Med Aromat Plants ;  ISSN: 2167-0412 MAP

  12. Nutrition Today, Volume 45  Number 1  January/February, 2010

  13. IJPSR, 2018; Vol. 9(10): 4089-4101

  14. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

  15. Indian institute of spices research

  16. Nutrients. 2020 Jun; 12(6): 1886.  PMCID: PMC7353321

  17. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009; 11(2): R49.  PMCID: PMC2688199

  18. Foods. 2017 Oct; 6(10): 92.  PMCID: PMC5664031

  19. Dravyaguna Vijnana, Vol. II

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