Black Pepper – The King of spices
Black pepper is native to South Asia and Southeast Asia, and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and long pepper (Piper longum) are the best known species in this family and are probably among the most recognized spices in the world. Black pepper alone accounts for about 35% of the world’s total spice trade. In addition, black pepper and long pepper have been used medicinally for centuries In recent years.
The most commonly used part of the plant is the aromatic fruit. Interestingly, white, green, and black peppers are products of the P. nigrum fruits at different ripening stages. White pepper is obtained from the fully ripened fruits after removing the outer skin, green pep…………….read more
Vitamin and Mineral content
Vitamin : B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, K, Choline
Mineral : Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Sodium, Potassium
One tablespoon (6 grams) of ground black pepper contains moderate amounts of vitamin K (13% of the daily value or DV), iron (10% DV), and manganese (18% DV), with trace amounts of other essential nutrients, protein, and dietary fibre.
The major components of the essential oils were α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, δ-3-carene, limonene, and β-caryophyllene.
– More than a hundred compounds have been reported in black pepper oil. The oil is dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (47–64%) followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (30–47%)
In plants, thesecompounds are mostly second…………….read more
Properties and Benefits
Rasa (Taste) – Katu (Pungent)
Guna (qualities) – Laghu (lightness), Teekshna (strong, piercing), Sookshma – enters deep and minute body channels
Taste conversation after digestion – Katu(pungent)
Veerya- Ushna – Hot potency
Effect on Tridosha – Balances Kapha and Vata
Na Ati Ushna – It is not very hot
Avrushya – It is anaphrodisiac
Ruchikaraka, Ruchya, Rochana – improves taste, relieves anorexia
Uses Benefits Application and Remedies
Fine powder of pepper is taken(1-2 gram), along with honey or betel leaf juice, which is used in chest congestion due to phlegm.
2) Black peppercorns and other whole herbs such as cinnamon chips, cloves and cracked cardamom pods are fried in ghee and used to flavor basmati rice.
3) It can be added to fruit juices which helps to nullify Kapha dominant effect of sweet fruits.
4) Hair loss caused due scalp ringworm can be treated by applying black pepper, along with onion and salt. This can be also applied in headache.
5) Pepper decoction is used to gargle in case of tooth pain.
6) Ghee + Trikatu (Ginger, black pepper, long pepper)+ rock salt, black salt and bida salt – Useful in vomiting due to Vata Dosha increase.
7) In dysentery, fine black pepper is given with asafoetida and opium.
8) In cough, pepper powder is given with honey and ghee.
8) In chronic cold, pepper is used with jaggery and curd.
9) It can Sprinkle over soups and salads.
10) In Ayurveda, black pepper, long pepper and ginger are often used together in equal proportions in a preparation known as “trikatu”, a Sanskrit word meaning “three acrids”.
11) Black pepper currently finds multiple uses in flavorings, in perfumes, and in insecticide formula…………….read more
Due to the hotness pepper, it increases Pitta. Hence, it needs to be used carefully in people with gastritis, burning sensation and sensitive stomach.
Because of its anaphrodisiac effect, it needs be used in less quantities or its long term usage is best avoided in men with infertility problems.
Pitta dom…………….read more
Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from piperine derived from both the outer fruit and the seed. Black pepper contains between 4.6 and 9.7% piperine by mass, and white pepper slightly more than that.
Refined piperine, by weight, is about one percent as hot as the ca…………….read more
Evaporation, so airtight storage helps preserve its spiciness longer. Pepper can also lose flavour when exposed to light, which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. Most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use.
Scents are mostly missing in white pepper, as the fermentation and other processing removes the fruit la…………….read more
Different varieties of Maricha :
Black Pepper: Black pepper is produced from the green unripe drupe (unripe fruit) of the pepper plant. The unripe fruits are cooked in water for a few hours, Sun-dried or machine-dried for many days, during which pepper gains black wri…………….read more
Further read on following link
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2014 Jun; 27(6): 847–854. PMCID: PMC4093167
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015 Apr 3; 66(3): 260–265. Published online 2015 Jan 13. PMCID: PMC4487614
Curr Top Med Chem. 2015; 15(9): 886–893. PMCID: PMC6295909
Spices board of india.
Molecules. 2019 Dec; 24(23): 4244. Published online 2019 Nov 21. PMCID: PMC6930617
Scholars Research Library. Central European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2014, 3 (2):36-41
The Medicinal Uses of Pepper. International Pepper News. Vol XXV, No. 1 Jan-Mar 2000. 23-31
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 4270; doi:10.3390/app9204270
Med Aromat Plants ; ISSN: 2167-0412 MAP
Nutrition Today, Volume 45 Number 1 January/February, 2010
IJPSR, 2018; Vol. 9(10): 4089-4101
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Indian institute of spices research
Nutrients. 2020 Jun; 12(6): 1886. PMCID: PMC7353321
Arthritis Res Ther. 2009; 11(2): R49. PMCID: PMC2688199
Foods. 2017 Oct; 6(10): 92. PMCID: PMC5664031
Dravyaguna Vijnana, Vol. II