Res Pharm Sci. 2020 Dec ;15(6):551-562. Epub 2020 Nov 27. PMID: 33828598
Alantolactone inhibits stem-like cell phenotype, chemoresistance and metastasis in PC3 cells through STAT3 signaling pathway.
Background and purpose: Cancer stem cells (CSCs), as the subpopulation of cancer cells, are associated with carcinogenesis, chemoresistance, and metastasis in malignancies. Also, CSCs are considered as the major reason for treatment failure in prostate cancer (PCa). Alantolactone (ALT), exerts anticancer activity in different types of cancers. In the present study, the relationship between ALT and CSCs in PCa metastasis and the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of PCa were investigated.Experimental approach: In this study, to evaluate cell viability, MTT assay was performed. Then, PC3 cells were treated with nontoxic concentrations of ALT and after this step wound-healing assay, colony-formation assay and chemosensitization assay were applied to determine cell migration, the ability of colony formation, and chemoresistance, respectively. Also, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used for the determination of genes and protein expression, respectively.Findings/Results: Our finding showed that ALT at nontoxic concentrations (0.01 and 0.1μM) for 72 h suppressed the STAT3 phosphorylation and signaling pathway. Also, ALT was able to modulate the stemness of PCa cells through downregulation of expression of SOX2, Oct-4, Nanog, CD133, CD44, and upregulation of p53 expression. On the other hand, we further found that ALT in nontoxic concentrations sensitized PCa cells to cisplatin.Conclusion and implications: ALT combated the stemness of cancer cells and metastasis by antagonizing of STAT3 signaling pathway. In addition, ALT exhibited anti-metastatic properties and may have potential as a new chemotherapy agent for the reduction of PCa metastasis.