Clin Immunol. 2021 Sep 8 ;231:108850. Epub 2021 Sep 8. PMID: 34506944
Infection with SARS-CoV-2 primes immunological memory in human nasal-associated lymphoid tissue.
BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality in humans. Little is known regarding the development of immunological memory following SARS-CoV-2 infection or whether immunological memory can provide long-lasting protection against reinfection. Urgent need for vaccines is a considerable issue for all governments worldwide.METHODS: A total of 39 patients were recruited in this study. Tonsillar mononuclear cells (MNCs) were co-cultured in RPMI medium and stimulated with the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the presence and absence of a CpG-DNA adjuvant. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was utilised to measure the specific antibody response to the spike protein in the cell culture supernatants.RESULTS: The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein primed a potent memory B cell-mediated immune response in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) from patients previously infected with the virus. Additionally, spike protein combined with the CpG-DNA adjuvant induced a significantly increased level of specific anti-spike protein IgG antibody compared with the spike protein alone (p