Microorganisms. 2021 May 16 ;9(5). Epub 2021 May 16. PMID: 34065638
Probiotics and Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Significant Roles ofand.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disorder that can lead to disability conditions with swollen joints, pain, stiffness, cartilage degradation, and osteoporosis. Genetic, epigenetic, sex-specific factors, smoking, air pollution, food, oral hygiene, periodontitis,, and imbalance in the gastrointestinal microbiota are possible sources of the initiation or progression of rheumatoid arthritis, although the detailed mechanisms still need to be elucidated. Probiotics containingare commonly used as alleviating agents or food supplements to manage diarrhea, dysentery, develop immunity, and maintain general health. The mechanism of action ofagainst rheumatoid arthritis is still not clearly known to date. In this narrative review, we recapitulate the findings of recent studies to understand the overall pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and the roles ofparticularlyorin the management of rheumatoid arthritis in clinical and preclinical studies.